Who was Who in Persian History
|1) Zarathust / Zarathost / Zoroaster
Prophet Spitaman or Spetman Zarathust who preached, the first ever monotheist religion, was born in Iran, in the city of Rae, which was on the banks of river Durji, flowing from the mountain Jabar. His Mother Dogdo or Dugdowa. was also from Rae, but father Poursasp was from the western region of media province called Azarbaizan. He first preached his religion at the city of Balkh, during the reign of Kyanian King Goshtasp. Being from the Spitaman or ancestral family, was called spetman Zarthust. He was born on the day of Khordad Sal (Mah Farvardin, Roj Khordad) and was killed on Zarthust no Diso I.e..Mah Dae, Roj Khorshed) by Turani Sardar named Tur-bar-tur in the fire temple at the city of Balkh at the ripe age of 78.
He was better known as Noshirwan-e-Adil and was the son of Kobad and 20th King of the Sassanian dynasty.His real name was Khusrav, but due to his righteous justice, he was called Noshirwan-e-Adil. He destroyed the followers of anti-Zoroastrian cult named ” Mazdak ” and ruled for 39 years.
He was the son of Zarthust. He was the leader of Athornans and was mobedaan-mobed. He died a century after the rise of Zoroastrianism.
She was the noble and pious wife of Prophet Zarthost and helped her husband in propagation of the religion.
5) Oorvatathnar / Urvatatnar
He was the son of prophet Zarthost and was the leader of farmers.
He was the son of prophet Zarthost . He being a strongman, was a close friend of Peshotan, the son of Shah Goshtasp. He lived in the city of Kungdej. It is being said that he is still alive.
7) Dogdo / Dodhdowa
She was the mother of prophet Zarthost and was from Zavish ancestral family. Her father’s name was Farehemfava.
He was the son of Paeterasp. He was the father of Prophet Zarathost. He was from Haechedasp or Spetman ancestral family, and was having stables of fine pedigree horses.
He was the son of Arasp, and the paternal cousin of Prophet Zarathost. He was the first, to accept, the Zoroastrian religion and hence was called the leader of all mobeds.
He was the son of Vidarshun and was the ninth ancestral father of Prophet Zarthost, hence the name Spetman Zarthost.
He was the son of Eruch and the fourteenth ancestral father of prophet Zarthost and the sixth king of Peshdanian dynasty. He was the son of Fredun Padshah’s son, Eruch’s daughter.He was born on the mountain Manush hence referred to as ” Manush Chithra “. To avenge his maternal grandfather Eruch, he killed Eruch’s brother selam and Toor who were responsible for killing Eruch. He ruled Iran with justice and wisdom.
He was the youngest son of the fifth Peshdanian king of Iran, Shah Faredun. Shah Faredun during his life time, made three parts of his vast kingdom. To the elder son Selam, he gave the eastern region of his kingdom and Mahachin. To the second son Toor, he gave Toorkastan, and to the youngest son Eruch he gave the biggest portion, that of Iran. Due to jealousy, the two brothers killed their younger brother Eruch. This was the beginning of great wars of revenge between Iran and Turan.
13) Shah Faredun Athavian
He was the fifth Peshdadian king of Iran, was the son of the noble and pious man named Athavian.Shah Faredun defeated the then treacherous king Zohak, in war and got him bound at the mountain Demavand. He ruled Iran with just and righteous orders. As his father was a breeder of cows, he introduced the Guraj, depicting the cow’s head on it. He was an expert of Herbal medicines.
He was the last Kyanian king, who was defeated by Sikander ( Alexander)
He was the son of Beheman, was the eight Kyanian king of Iran. His mother Homai, on birth, put him in a wooden case and drifted him away in a river.He was picked up and brought up by a washerman. When he came of age, his mother got him found and made him the king of Iran. A book ” Darabnama ” had been written on his life.
She was the wife of Beheman and was the daughter of Egyptian king. After the death of her husband Beheman, she ruled Iran for 32 years.
17) Beheman or Boman
He was the sixth Kyanian king of Iran and was the son of Shah Gostasp’s son, Aspandiar. On Aspandiar’s untimely death, Gostasp gave Beheman, the kingdom of Iran. Beheman destroyed, the entire family and the kin of the great warrior Jalejar. Beheman-nama is a book written on his life.
18) Noshazer and Adar Farooz
They were the grand sons of Shah Goshtasp, and sons of Aspandiar.They established in their individual names, two fire temples in Iran and helped out Prophet Zarthost in propagating the religion.
He was the son of Kyanian king Shah Goshtaspshah.He was also called Rohinton Aspandiar; Rohinton meaning body of bronze. In our sacred scriptures he is referred as ” Spentodaat ” . He fought many a religious wars and helped to enhance the propagation of our religion. He also got built many fire temples.
He was the son of Shah Goshtasp, and hakem of Khurasaan. In our holy scriptures he is referred as Frushamvaret. It is stated in a book Yadgare-Zarirnan that it was wounded and killed in religious war against king Arjasp of Turan. In that war altogether 23 princes, who were brothers and sons of Shah Goshtaspshah were killed.
She was the queen of Shah Goshtasp and is referred in our holy scriptures as Hutox. She was very much impressed by the religion that Prophet Zarthost preached.She made her husband and sons propogate Zororastrianism with fervor.
22) Shah Goshstaspshah
He was the son of Lohraspshah and was the fifth Kyanian king of Iran. In our holy scriptures he is referred to as ‘ Nao-Taiye’ meaning from the ancestral family of Nauder.In the 3oth year of his rule, Prophet Zarthost preached his religion. Many religious wars were fought in which most of the brothers and princes of Shah Goshtasp got killed.He was renowned as the great friend and supporter of prophet Zarthost. In Avesta today, a Zoroastrian whilst declaring his religion in prayers, takes a vow to be as religious and noble as Shah Goshtaspshah.
He was the son of Lohrashpshah and Inastu. He and his son both were killed in religious wars.
He was the son of Arvand and son-in-law of Kaikaus, and was the forth Kyanian king. Shah Kaikhusrow whilst meditating in a cave had a hinting vision, hence ha gave the kingdom of Iran to Shah Lohraspashah who was very pious and wise.Lohraspashah extended his empire right upto China and Tartar.He also established a fire temple in Balkh. At the ripe age he gave his kingdom to his son Goshtaspshah, and led a lonely life at Balkh city .The Turanians at war killed him with other mobeds and Prophet Zarthost in the said fire temple.
25) Shiavaksh or Shavak
He was the son of the second Kyanian king Kaikaus. Our holy scriptures refer to him as ‘Syavarshan’. He got built the then famous fort at Kungdej. He married Farangiz, the daughter of Turanian king Afrasiab, who bore him the noble son Kaikhusrav.It is being said that he is still alive, at the cave of Che-Chast-var.He was immortalised by almighty God so as to help Shosyos at the time of Rast khej. Afrasiab on investigation of his brother Karsiavaj got Shavak killed. Consequently, a long line of battles took place between Iran and Turan.At last shah Kaikhusrav with help of Hom dastoor, avenged the killing of his father Shavak and put to death Afrasiab and Karsivaj.
He was the son of Kaikobad and was referred in our holy scriptures as ‘ Kaviosan ‘ . He meditated at the mount of ‘ Aereji-roop, in the name of Ahura Mazda and Avan azad, due to the power of which he was able to destroy magicians and sorcerers Kik, Karp and others.He used to have a natural aura and said to have mastered a trick, which enabled him to fly in the air.
He was the son of Kairus and grand son of Kaipashin, was the first Kyanian king of Iran. He was the descendent of Shah faredoon. He was used to live a lonely life at mount Elburj. On the death of the Peshdadian king Shah Kershasp, the great warrior Jalejar, ordered his son, the then world renowned Rustom Pehelvan to fetch Kaikobad to enthrone him as the king of Iran.
He is better known as Jamasp Hakim and was one of the most staunch followers and propogators of Prophet Zarathost. Shah Goshtaspshah after accepting Zoroastrianism appointed Jamasp, Aspendiar, Zarir and Frashostra to propagate the same. Shah Gostaspashah requested Prophet Zarthost to pray to God and get four different boons. Accordingly, Prophet Zarthost was answered by divine force that the said boons will not be endowed upon Shah Gostaspashah alone, but to four different individuals. So Prophet Zarthost, gave Shah Goshtaspashah the consecrated and ritually blessed wine to drink by powers of which he visited his destined and ordained heaven, and back. To Aspandiar, the son of Shah Gostaspashah, the consecrated pomegranate was given to eat by which his body became as solid as bronze (thereafter called Rohinton Aspandiar, Rohinton meaning bronze bodied.) The consecrated milk was given to drink to another son of Shah Goshtaspashah, namely Peshotan, the high priest of Kungdej the city built by Shavak by which he became immortal. He is said to be still alive living with his 150 disciples in the caves of Kungdej or Kungrej. Jamasp was given the consecrated flower to smell, by which he could vividly describe the past and foretell the future.A book of prediction called Jamaspi was written by him. He was also proclaimed as Dasturaan-Dastur..He became the son-in-law of Prophet Zarthost.
He was the brother of Jamasp and is referered in our holy scriptures as Farshostra Khoob nar asho. He was from the ancestral family of Havovi the wife of Prophet Zarthost. He was a staunch follower and propagater of Zoroastrianism.
30) The Strongmen and warriors of ancient Iran
Adar Burzin, Sam, Tookhare, Jehanbux : Sons of Framroz
Framroze, Jehangir : Sons of Rustom Kariman
Jehansuj, Temur : Sons of Burjor
Khurshed-Mhapaeker Burjor : Sons of Sohrab
Sohrab : Son of Rustom
Rustom, Javereh : Sons of Jal
Jal : Son of Sam
Sam : Son of Nariman
Nariman : Son of Kershasp
Kershasp : Son of Asrat
He was a great warrior. His life history is well preserved in Kershasp-nama.
He was the son of Jal and was the most renowned champion warrior in Iranian history. He is referred in Shahnama as Tehmton. He devoted all his life in the service of Kyanian kings. Many a war was won under his command. According to Behman-nama, treachery on the part of his youngest brother Shogad, Rustom was killed at the ripe age of 800 years. Ancestors of Rustom were Jal, Sam, Nariman, Kershasp, Asrat, Sam, Toorak, Shedasya, Toor, Shah Jamshed and Vivanghan.
33) Shah Jamshed
He was the fourth Peshdadian king. Our holy scriptures refer to him as Yim. It is believed the Ahuramazdi religion was first got enlightened in him by God, way before Prophet Zarthost. Amongst all Iranian kings, he stood the greatest. He was always anxious for the betterment of his subjects, and had them divided in four categories.
1) Atharenans, Athornans consisted of wise pious subjects.
2) Rathestars consisted of warriors
3) Vastrios consisted of farmers.
4) Hutox consisted of skilled labourers.
As per Jamiyad Yasht, he got constructed the Varjam Kard caves. He had a natural aura. His pride during later years brought him his ruin.He had to leave the throne of Iran, to live in the jungle. During that period he gor married to Samnaz, the daughter of the king of Jabulistan, who bore him a son named Toor. According to Shahnama, Jamshed was killed by Zohak.
He fought many a war for Iran.Though being a Turani his name comes across in our holy scriptures. He was killed by his own brother Afrasiab of Turan for favouring Iran and its kings.
35) Banoo Goshap or Goshasp
She was the daughter of Rustom Pehelvan. She was very beautiful and strong. To win her hand in marriage, many hopeful strongmen tried to defeat her in vain. At last she married Gev.
36) Yezdezard Sheriyar
He was the last Sassanian king and was defeated in the war of Nahvand in 641 AD by Arab commander Khalif Omer. Thus came the fall of Iran’s Zoroastrian kings. The Yezdezardi calender year started on his enthronement.
37) Ardeshir Babekhan of Babegan
He was the first Sassanian king.The suffix babekan came from his maternal grandfather named Babak.He encouraged Zoroastrianism and enhanced it when the same was going through a lean period and brought an end to other anti-Zoroastrianism cults.
38) Aderbad Marespand
He was a very pious and wise dastur, during the reign of third sassanian king Hormuzd.The good advice and teachings he imparted to his son Zarthost (not our Prophet) were written down in pehelvi language book named Pundnamey adarbad marespand.
39) Mandiganey Gostefrian
As per the pahelvi language story he was pious and wise. His brother-in-law Akhtjadu, on terms of death, asked him 33 questions, which he all answered. In return Gostefrian asked him 3 questions which he could not answer. Hence Gostefrian killed Akhtdaju. Hoofrish the wife of Akhtajadu was also just and pious. She was killed by her husband for rightly and justly taking the side of her brother Gostefrian, during the question answer session. Thus she lost her life for adhering to the truth.
40) Dastur Ardeshir Noshirwan Kermani
He was called from Iran by Shahenshah Akbar to Delhi to express his views in detail on Zoroastrianism and to help Akbar out to write Pazend and Pehelvi language stanzas for book named Fahungeh Jehangiri.
41) Kyanian King Shah Kaikhusru & others
When he was on the war-path against devparasti (idol worship, black magic, sorcery) a live fire sat on the ear of his horse. That fire was named by him as Adar Goshasp (Gush + Asp = ears + horse). He established that fire on mount Asanvad. This fire is the patron of strongmen and warriors.
The kyanian king Goshtaspashah established the fire Adar Burzin Meher on mount Raevand, a part of mount Pushte Vistaspan in Khorasan. Prophet Zarthost had that fire with him when shah Goshtaspshah accepted his faith. This fire is the patron of farmers.
A fire named Adar Froba was established by Shah Jamshed on the mount Gadmund-Homund.
Shah Goshtaspshah also established the said type of Atash, at Kabulistan on the mount of Roshun.
Peshotan the son of Shah Goshtaspashah maintained it, and with its divine help destroyed idols and and idol worshippers. This fire is the patron of Athornans.
Atash mino-karko remains within and nearby Pak Dadar Khudavand.
42) Atash Vohufrian lies within humans and animals. Atash Auvajaste lies within trees and vegetation.
Wajaste Atash that of lightening lies within stones. Shapeneste Atash is the common fire, which lies everywhere and cooks our food.
Atash Naiyosung is the patron of great kings and dasturs.
43) Shosyos means ‘ Deliverer of benefits or Benefactor. In ancient books, it is found that shosyos will get borne by a woman named Visptowrivi. (Destroyer of evil) Shosyos who is referred in Fravardin Yasht as Asatvat Aeratay because at the time of Rastakhej ( Ris + Akhej = Dead + rise) he will resurrect the dead.
44) Dastoor Adarbad Marespand
He during the reign of Shapur reorganised the now available scriptures of Avesta. The originals were either burnt or torn by anti-Zoroastrians periodically. He authored the prayer Patet Pashemani.
Note: All the above ancient Iranian historical events/facts are taken from a century old book.
Compiled by: Phil Masters