His centennial birth year is an opportunity to celebrate the man who set up the Border Security Force and laid the ground for the first Public Interest Litigation case

Though he was born a Parsi on May 22, 1916, Khusro Faramurz Rustamji, one of modern India’s most celebrated police officers and the first Director General of the Border Security Force, was cremated, according to his wishes, as per Hindu rituals in March 2003. A passionate nationalist, Rustamji also wrote extensively on minority rights of Hindus and Muslims, and rued the fact that his journalistic writings were not acknowledged. However, now, in the 100th year of his birth, Rustamji’s writings are finally being acknowledged as religiously as his remarkable leadership in the police and BSF.

In 1971, in an acknowledgment of his leadership capabilities, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi wrote a letter at the end of the India-Pakistan war, in which Rustamji had so brilliantly deployed the might of the BSF, a force he nurtured: “As the first line of our defence, the Border Security Force had to bear the immediate brunt of the enemy onslaught. The manner in which they faced the fire and support they gave to the army played a crucial role in our ultimate success.” Defense Secretary KB Lall, in his letter to the Home Secretary also praised the role of the BSF: “A special word of thanks to the Director General of the Border Security Force and to the men and officers under his command, is overdue. It is their initial initiatives, their boldness courage and, if I may say so, imagination, which provided eventually an opportunity to the Defense Services to do their part.”

In the midst of Pakistani fury when Bangladesh was preparing for the swearing-in ceremony, selection of the place was critical. Rustamji was clear he wanted this historic ceremony to be witnessed by the maximum number of people. The spot also had to provide for the possibility of strafing by a Pakistani plane which did this ruthlessly all over East Pakistan. Accordingly, a triangular piece of land jutting into India with a beautiful mango grove was selected in a village called Baidyanathtala which later became Mujib Nagar. It was a unique way for the new Government of a new nation to be sworn in, in the midst of a global Press.

Rustamji nicely summarised this. He said, “The first process of Government of a newly born nation was to commence not in a man-made, gaily decorated and illuminated building of carpeted floor and chandelier decorated ceilings but in a place which had for its canopy the sky, and for its decoration the trees. Decades or centuries hence when the citizens of Bangladesh would look back on the birth of their country and the tragic circumstances attending it, they could legitimately be proud, among other things, of the fact that their first Government sworn to democracy, secularism, and socialism came in an area where nature had bestowed her gifts in profusion and in the wake of ceremonies which were not only immaculate but also daring in their conception and courageous in their execution.”

After his retirement in 1974, Rustamji was much sought after for his expertise. As Special Secretary in the Ministry of Home Affairs, he structured the BSF, the Indo-Tibetan Border Police, the Central Industrial Security Force in the Central Police Organisation. He also initiated the formation of the Indian Coast Guard and was responsible for setting up the National Police Commission. He later became its member from 1978 to 1983.

Not many know about this but, in 1978, Rustamji visited the jails in Bihar and wrote about the conditions of the undertrials languishing for long periods. Two of his articles in The Indian Express formed the basis for the first Public Interest Litigation case, Hussainara Khatoon vs State of Bihar, which led to the release of 40,000 undertrials all over India.


Palkhivala and The Constitution of India

Posted in LEGAL LUMINARIES by NNLRJ INDIA on February 21, 2010


by Soli J. Sorabjee    Cite as : (2003) 4 SCC (Jour) 33

Nani Palkhivala

Nani Palkhivala

On 16-1-1920 was born a child in Bombay whom his parents christened Nanabhoy. It was not an earth-shattering event at that time. In later years, he was known as Nani Palkhivala—a household name, not only amongst lawyers, but throughout the length and breadth of our country. What was the constitution of this man who became an authority and a guardian of our Constitution in later years? What was his background?

Physically he was not impressive. A young, slim boy measuring about 5 feet 7 inches in height and not having many kilos to carry. Nani Palkhivala was not born with a silver spoon in his mouth. He hailed from a humble Parsi middle-class working family. His ancestors were in the profession of making and fixing “palkhis,” namely, palanquins, to be fitted to horse carriages of those times. Hence the surname Palkhivala, which like many Parsi surnames, is associated with a particular calling or profession.

Nani Palkhivala’s schooling was in Master’s Tutorial High School in Bombay. He was a brilliant student and did extremely well despite his initial handicap of stammering which he overcame by sheer willpower. After matriculation he joined St. Xavier’s College, Bombay and completed his MA in English Literature. In younger days, he did take to music and played the violin reasonably well. But the spell of Apollo was short-lived. Music was not one of his passions in later life.

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Yesteryear models reunite with ‘Godmother’ of fashion choreography

India’s top models from the 70s and 80s reunite with Godmother of fashion choreography Jeannie Naoroji, who tells them what she always did, smile and pull the chin up

On stage are: Interior designer and noted aesthete Kavita Singh, film actor Deepak Parasher, dance director Salome Roy Kapur, jewellery designer Marianne Rao, cancer survivor Esther Daswani, actor and artist Kiran Juneja, fashion choreographer Lubna Adams, actors Pheroza Modi and Nandini Sen, business professional Nandini Kamdar (nee Naqi Jehan), luxury brand marketing professional Adrianne ‘Anna’ Bredemeyer and businessman Asgar Jehan. Off the stage at Tata Theatre, NCPA, actor Zeenat Aman quietly absorbs instructions. Almost all of them are beauty contest winners, models, actors and activists — the nation’s first harvest of ambassadors of beauty and elegance.

Jeannie flanked by Lubna Adams (left) and Dolly Thakore (rear centre)
Jeannie flanked by Lubna Adams (left) and Dolly Thakore (rear centre)

What Jeannie Naoroji sees: young models who need to be repeatedly told to, “Zip the lips, girls. Focus.” or “Models shouldn’t talk.” or “Did I tell you to speak?”

Jeannie Naoroji, 90, choreographs Kiran Juneja at a rehearsal for the awards night fashion show. Pics/Suresh KK
Jeannie Naoroji, 90, choreographs Kiran Juneja at a rehearsal for the awards night fashion show. Pics/Suresh KK

The scene is the rehearsal for Fashion Rewind, a show that finally took place last Wednesday. Jeannie was awarded the Laadli Lifetime Achievement Award for Fashion Design and Choreography. “The awards celebrate women in the field of media, arts and advertising. Past recipients have included Zohra Sehgal and Shaukat Azmi. This year, it’s Jeannie,” says Dolly Thakore, national co-ordinator for the 7th National Laadli Media and Advertising Awards for Gender Sensitivity. “We choose women who are leaders in their field and over 90 years of age,” she adds.

Zeenat Aman (in green) worked with Jeannie even before she won the Miss Asia Pacific title in 1970. Behind her to her right is Salome Roy Kapur
Zeenat Aman (in green) worked with Jeannie even before she won the Miss Asia Pacific title in 1970. Behind her to her right is Salome Roy Kapur

Jeannie, at 90 years and eight months, is a veteran choreographer of over 4000 shows stretching from the mid 1950s to early 1990s. Those were shows before there were fashion designers, or even an Indian fashion industry. “It was more like entertainment with a dash of business thrown in,” says Anna. “There would be a room or an exhibition where a cloth mill would showcase the latest wares to buyers. We would have a show with clothes made from that same fabric. It was more a tamasha and we did our own hair and make-up.”

Former model-turned-actor Deepak Parasher strikes a pose
Former model-turned-actor Deepak Parasher strikes a pose

Jeannie became the director of these shows because of her interest and experience in dance movement. Born in Karachi in undivided India, she studied ballet up to the week before her wedding in 1951. In 1954, she was involved with raising funds through shows for the National Association for the Blind and the Maharashtra State Council for Women. “We had to do a fashion show for the institution. Someone saw me dancing to music and asked me to choreograph fashion shows,” she says. “And that’s how it began.”

Fashion aboard ships
The assembled cast has been reminiscing about those shows, which were mini adventures. Paced as entertainment, they would supplement a fabric trade show. The mills used the event as live expositions of their new products. Calico and Hakoba Mills held travelling shows. There was an adventure on a cruise liner that sailed up and down the river Rhine in Germany where shows were held twice a day. Then came a memorable trip to Moscow for a textile exhibition which was supposed to last four days, but stretched to 25 days. “We almost lost Sam there; his heart belonged to Russia,” Jeannie says.

She’s talking about veteran stage director Sam Kerawalla. He’s here too, handling the lights and production for the awards like he has for 40 years. Handling music production in place of Sam is old friend and collaborator, Sarosh Bhabha, is his son Kaizad. “Can you believe it, he passed away just in February,” says Jeannie. “We worked together for more than 40 years.” Kaizad began accompanying his father when he was 10 and was present on that Rhine trip. He grew up in the company of all the women present on stage today, which explains why they maternally pat his cheeks and ask about his recent elective surgery. In the background, Sam and Salomé break into a jive. Marianne ‘Dalda’ Rao (nee D’Souza), Pheroza Modi (nee Cooper) and Esther Daswani mock glide, pace like seductive tigresses and goof about. Asgar Jehan, an old dance partner of Salome’s, takes former beauty queen and fashion writer Meher Castellino’s place as they practice entries. He walks with feminine grace as the girls hoot. Esther calls out to Jeannie, “Don’t grow old before your time, Jeannie!”

You haven’t changed
Jeannie theatrically counts to 10 sitting in the front seat of the audience. “One must count to 10 before retaliating to a rude person. You girls have become too clever for me,” she yells. “Jokers. I am not amused at all.”

That’s Jeannie, each model says. Feisty, professional and a yeller. “I’m too old! I can’t be scolded like this!” laughs Kiran. “She thinks we are still 18,” says Esther. But nobody says that to her; they do as they are told.

Each of them has walked for Jeannie though the 60s, 70s, 80s and the 90s. Salome began as long back as 1968 and worked with her till 1977. Zeenat worked with her before she won Miss Asia and after and during the time. “I learnt to walk the ramp from her, which helped me win an international contest and put me on the path to movies,” says Zeenat. She, like all the others, has taken out time from a busy schedule to rehearse for the show. “I think if anyone has contributed to your growth, it’s nice to acknowledge it,” she says, presumably speaking for everyone.

With her knowledge of dance movement, Jeannie would choreograph the shows resembling mini ballets. There would be three or four sections, showing Indian wear, casual Indian wear, casual western wear and perhaps some avant-garde designs. “We would open with an aarti or a namaskar and then move about occupying the stage, striking poses. It was not just walking up and down [like it is now],” Jeannie says. This format is being replicated for the tribute show that her former colleagues have put together. Designers Wendell Rodricks, Neeta Lulla and Rudra Kapur of Burlington have offered to design the costumes.

To all of them, Jeannie is unchanged — she still dresses in a monotone and a flourish of a trendy accessory — a scarf then, an ikat jacket now with a co-ordinated headscarf. Thick framed glasses match the black rock entwined in a silver ring in one hand, which matches a gunmetal band on a finger in the other. Her earrings are black buttons. Her decisions are made in a split-second. “No, not this music; try the other,” she barks. When asked whether she doesn’t like it, she says, “It’s not a matter of liking; it should match the clothes.” To the models she instructs, “Glide girls. Raise your chins. Remember you are showing off the clothes. Anna, please put the bag down, be a model. Make a sensational pose. Smile! Smile out of your hair, out of your body.”

“This is what we wanted,” says Salome. “To bring the old Jeannie back.”

Out of the theatre, the girls recall her as a mother hen, always wanting to know if your personal life was okay, whether they were comfortable in a strange land and eating well. She forked Lubna’s career into a new direction with a backhanded compliment. “This was in 1991 or ’92,” Lubna recalls. “About six or seven days before a show, Jeannie’s daughter called me and said, ‘My mother is ill and can’t do the show. She has said you will do it.’ I didn’t know anything about choreography and said so. Her daughter replied, ‘If mother thinks you can do it, you can do it.’ So I directed and walked the show. After that, I grew in that direction.”

The crew had grand plans of celebrating Jeannie’s life with giant picture backdrops, flowery speeches and tokens of
affection. Jeannie doesn’t want to know about all that. “It’ll get a bit boring if you keep talking about Jeannie Naoroji,” she tells Dolly, who is working on the script to fill the time between costume changes. “Why don’t you talk about the models, instead.”

To journalists writing about her she repeatedly says, “Don’t overdo it.”

To the world at large, she says, “I am in my element when I say something rude.”

Shireen Mistry awarded honorary MBE by Prince William

Press Trust of India  |  Mumbai April 11, 2016 Last Updated at 18:22 IST

Shireen D Mistry, former Head of Communications and Public Affairs of the British Deputy High Commission for Western India, was awarded an honorary MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire) by the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge here today.

“Her Majesty The Queen has approved the award of an honorary MBE to Shireen Dinshaw Mistry, an Indian citizen, in recognition of her contribution towards building strong relations between and the United Kingdom,” an official release said here.

Mistry worked at the British Deputy High Commission,for 23 years, between 1992 and 2015, running their Communications and Public Affairs department for Western India.

She was presented with her honorary MBE by His Royal Highness The Duke of Cambridge during the Royal couple’s visit here today, the release said.

British Deputy High Commissioner in Mumbai, Kumar Iyer, said “Shireen has been a powerful and impressive advocate for strong and friendly relations between India and the UK. On top of that she has been the link between the media in Western India and the British Government and a popular, high profile member of the British Deputy High Commission staff.

“I am delighted that Her Majesty has graciously approved this award and that His Royal Highness The Duke of Cambridge has agreed to present it to Shireen. She deserves it,” Iyer added.

Mistry is a graduate of Mumbai University (St Xavier’s College, where she co-founded its popular annual festival Malhar) and of Oxford University (Somerville College).

She worked as a journalist before joining the British Deputy High Commission.

The Order of the British Empire (which has several ranks) is the order of chivalry of British democracy. Valuable service is the criterion for the award. Citizens from other countries may also receive an honorary award for services rendered to the United Kingdom and its people.

The MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire) was created in 1917 by King George V to recognise the contribution of a greater range of people to the British war effort and with the post-war intention to reward services in a wider sense.

Under the MBE, women and foreigners were included in an order of chivalry for the first time, it added.

The Contribution Of The Parsi Community During The First World War (1914-1918)

The Contribution Of The Parsi Community During The First World War (1914-1918)


Marzban Jamshedji Giara

This book is the culmination of the author Marzban Giara’s single minded determination and dedication to record for posterity  the sacrifices made by Parsi doctors, soldiers, businessmen and philanthropists during the First World War. It vividly tells about the role of 700 Parsis with over 200 photographs. Little known facts about the Parsi Battalion and the War Memorial at Khareghat Colony, Bombay are well documented quoting the sources of information.


Starting with prayers by the community it goes on to narrate the part played by community leaders by appeals, speeches, logistics support, the Parsi Ambulance Division, doctors, nurses, motor drivers, storekeepers, accountants, postal service, finances, war loans, use of Parsi properties, Parsi contractors, recruitment assistance, books by Parsis relating to the War. There is a special mention of the part played by Tata Iron & Steel Co. Ltd. which resulted in Jamshedpur being named after its visionary founder.


This book is published by Sorabji Burjorji Garda College Trust, Parsi Cultural Division, Navsari. It was released on 2nd March 2016 by Dr. Dakshesh Thakar, Vice-Chancellor, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat on the 71st annual day of S. B. Garda College. Ms. Ramia Mohan, IAS, Collector, Navsari district graced the occasion.


Mr. Dara K. Deboo, chairman of the Trust stated: “Parsis have been pioneers in education. 51 high schools and 27 colleges were started by Parsis. Sir Cowasjee Jehanghier started Sir Cowasjee Jehanghier Navsari Zarthosti Madressa in 1856 as also Elphinstone College and Institute of Science, Bombay University Convocation Hall and an Engineering College at Pune. Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute, and Grant Medical College at Bombay, Byramjee Jejeebhoy Medical Colleges at Pune and Ahmedabad and Indian Institute of Science Bangalore were all started by Parsi philanthropy. When S. B. Garda College was started in 1945 in Navsari it was the only college between Bombay and Ahmedabad.”


“We Parsis are a peaceful community but in times of war we have always been in the forefront in the defence of our country. Parsis have been Chiefs of the Indian Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard and Border Security Force. In no other country in the world would you find such responsible posts are entrusted to a member of a microscopic minority community. Even in the field of atomic energy we have produced Dr. Homi Bhabha after whom Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is named.”


Price: Rs.300/- postage extra 149 pages, illustrated, hard bound, printed on art paper.


Available from Mr. Dara Deboo at Navsari e-mail: dara.deboo@yahoo.com


A Tribute to the Parsi Community of Pakistan

A Tribute to the Parsi Community of Pakistan, both my grand fathers built far North west frontier province
My own grandfather Hormusji Sorabji Shroff built Oil storage tanks and my Pious Maternal grand father Jamsetji nusserwanji Mehta Built Ice factories in Karachi

“Losing a community like the Parsis is definitely a huge blow to a tolerant Pakistan, its cultural diversity and economic well-being as Parsis have contributed immensely to the progress of this country,”

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Courtesy : Mehernosh Shroff

Jamsetji Tata

Jamsetji Tata: Glancing at the journey of the pioneer of Indian Industry

By NewsGram News Desk –

March 12, 2016


Photo: @TataCompanies

By Gauri Kumari

The 21st century’s Indian government major concern is to rejuvenate the India’s manufacturing base and the job it creates. To achieve this objective the present government has initiated the ‘Make In India’ program. A special focus has been given to this in the recent 2016-17 budget  by our finance minister Arun Jaitley. The 19th century mill owner and industrialist Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata would have shared the same concern.

India’s first industrial manufacturing boom in the latter half of the 19th century gave birth to the father of Indian industry Jamsetji Nassurwanji Tata– The Founder of the Tata Group. Jamsetji’s vision now stands in front of us in the form of ‘The Tata Group of Companies’, India’s one the largest conglomerate contributing approximately 5% to India’s GDP alone.



Born as Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata to Nusserwanji and Jeevan Bai Tata on 3rd march 1839 in Navsari , a town in south Gujarat  in a family of Parsi Zoroastrian priests. His father Nusserwanji  was first to try his hand in business. Nussrewanji moved to Mumbai then known as Bombay and began his career by setting up an export trading firm. Jamsetji  took admission at the Elphinestone College in Bombay at the age of 14. Being an exceptional student during college years , the principal decided to refund his fees once he completed the degree. He graduated from there as a green scholar in 1858 which is nowadays equivalent to  a graduate degree. Since, child marriage was prominent in those days the future business tycoon got married at the tender age of 16 to the 10 year old Hirabai Daboo.



He began as an opium trader. Soon after graduating from college, he joined his father’s trading firm. Unlike cast Hindus Parsis didn’t see traveling abroad a sin and this gave them considerable advantages. Jamsetji was put to work in China and his immediate task was to get opium and cogon to Hong Kong and Shanghai and to send back tea, camphor and gold. He stayed in Hong Kong for four years to accomplish his fathers dream of setting up a ‘Tata & company office’ there. Soon after achieving this milestone he moved to London, Europe to manage the cotton export business. There he received a crash course in world economics. To expand his father’s export business was not the sole motive behind his stay in London, he was also there to set up an Indian Bank. However, this venture of Tatas proved to be a total failure with the financial crisis hitting the Indian markets and the time being not favorable for the banking sector. A large sum of loss was faced by the Tata companies in India and all over Asia due to this collapse.



Jamsetji worked under his father’s shadow until the age of 29. In 1868 with the confidence , knowledge and experience that he gathered  by working under his father for 9 years he started off with his own trading company with a capital of worth Rs 21,000. Howsoever, Tata was left with many worthless bills of credit due to which he had to liquidate his company.  Jamsetji made his move into textile industry by buying a bankrupt oil mill in ‘Chinchpokli’ in 1869 converting it to a cotton mill and later renaming it as ‘Alexandra Mill’. However, he sold it two years later for profit to a local merchant. He established another cotton mill in 1874 in Nagpur naming it ‘Empress Mill’ which brought huge profits to him. He opened several other mills, three years later. To better his mills he made frequent trips to England to learn fine spinning technology. He also traveled to Egypt to master cultivation and grow higher quality cotton. These cotton mills brought him huge revenues, but were later sold by him for huge sum of money.



Jamsetji was a fan of the great exhibitions of the 19th century and was very obsessed with innovation and technology. His home had electric piano, a cinematograph and other most advanced technological toys of the 19th century. Moreover, his horse carriage was the first in India to have rubber tires. It was Jamsetji who introduced cold storage to Bombay, which can be seen in the form of cold storage room in Taj hotel’s old building. He actually tried it to ship business mangoes to Britain in cold storage.

His contemporaries relied on cheap labor and family to run business. Unlike them Jamsetji realized that modern industries needed professional managers and a satisfied and willing workforce. He was the first of his kind who tried to initialize the idea of human capital to work with technology. The first millionaire of India to introduce pension funds for his employees. He as well introduced other policies as well, which were never heard during those times, namely medical facilities for sick and women with children, accident compensations and on job trainings. This was not sentimental generosity he showed but the benefits provided by his company gave a reason to the skilled workers to stay.

His vision was to establish

  • A steel and iron plant
  • A learning institution
  • A world class hotel
  • A hydroelectric plant

To achieve these visions of his little could stop him. He traveled to America and got in touch with the American engineers to build his steel plant amidst the Indian jungle. He traveled to America and Europe to educate himself on the production of steel out of iron. Moreover, in order to realize his dream he wanted to grasp each and every piece of information about the technological advancement that had taken place all over the world over the years and use it for his benefit.

Unfortunately, he could realize only one of his dream till the time he was alive i.e. the establishment of world class hotel “The Taj Hotel”- the first to have electricity and a lift. The other three visions of his were turned to reality by his successors but he was not alive to see them , the foundations  of which were laid by him.

In his final years, in a series of letters he wrote to his son Dorab, he expressed his idea of building a township around his iron and steel plant. He wrote “be sure to lay wide streets planted with shady trees, every other of a quick growing variety. Be sure that there is plenty of space for lawns and gardens. Reserve large areas for football, hockey and parks. Earmark areas for Hindu Temples, Mohammedan Mosques and Christian Churches”. This vision of township would eventually become Jamshedpur.



Jamsetji Tata passed away on 19 may 1904. After his death the Tata group was succeeded by his two sons Dorabjee Tata and Ratanji Tata.

On his demise, Dr Zakir Hussain ,the Former President of India said “while many others worked on loosening the chains of slavery and hastening the march towards the dawn of freedom, Tata dreamed of and worked for life as it was to be fashioned after liberation. Most of the others worked for freedom from a bad life of servitude; Tata worked for freedom for fashioning a better life for economic independence.”

His dreams were realized to reality. Tata’s iron and steel plant was set up in Sakchi village, Jharkhand. The village grew into a town and now a metropolis known as Jamshedpur. Moreover the Railway Station there was named Tatanagar. It is Asia’s first and India’s largest and world’s fifth largest steel company. The Tata power company is India’s largest private electricity generating company.

“Make the world England” was a popular slogan at the height of the British empire, but today the Tata’s have made the world more Indian.

The author is a student of university of Hyderabad Twitter:@gauri89715

Source : http://www.newsgram.com/jamsetji-tata-glancing-at-the-journey-of-the-pioneer-of-indian-industry/

Dadabhai Naoroji

Dadabhai Naoroji
Born: September 4, 1825
Died: June 30, 1917


Achievements: First Indian to become a professor of the Elphinston college; instrumental in the establishment of the Indian National Congress; was President of the Indian National Congress thrice; the Congress’ demand for swaraj (self-rule) was first expressed publicly by him in his presidential address in 1906


Dadabhai Naoroji is fondly called as the “Grand Old Man of India”. He is viewed as the architect who laid the foundation of the Indian freedom struggle.


Dadabhai Naoroji was born in a poor Parsi family in Bombay on September 4, 1825. His father, Naoroji Palanji Dordi, died when Dadabhai Naoroji was only four years old. He was raised by her mother Maneckbai who despite being illiterate herself ensured that Dadabhai Naoroji got best English education possible. As a student Dada Bhai Naoroji was very good in Mathematics and English. He studied at Elphinstone Institution, Bombay and on completion of his education he was appointed the Head Native Assistant Master at the Elphinstone Institution. Dadabhai Naoroji became a professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at Elphinstone Institution at the age of 27. He was the first Indian to become a professor of the college.


Dadabhai Naoroji entered the political fray in 1852. He strongly opposed the renewal of lease to the East India Company in 1853. He sent petitions to the English government in this regard. But the British government ignored his pleas and renewed the lease. Dadabhai Naoroji felt that the British misrule of India was because of ignorance of the Indian people. He set up the Gyan Prasarak Mandali (Society for Promotion of Knowledge) for the education of adult menfolk. He wrote several petitions to Governors and Viceroys regarding India’s problems. Ultimately, he felt that the British people and the British Parliament must be made aware of India’s plight. In 1855, at the age of 30 he sailed for England.


In England, Dadabhai Naoroji joined several learned societies, delivered many speeches and wrote articles on the plight of India. He founded the East Indian Association on December 1st, 1866. The association was comprised of high-ranking officers from India and people who had access to Members of the British Parliament. Dadabhai Naoroji was elected to the British Parliament in 1892 from Central Finsbury as the Liberal party candidate. He got a resolution passed in British Parliament for holding preliminary examinations for the I.C.S. in India and England simultaneously. He also got the Wiley Commission, the royal commission on India expenditure, to acknowledge the need for even distribution of administrative and military expenditure between India and England.


Dadabhai Naoroji was instrumental in the establishment of the Indian National Congress founded by A.O. Hume in 1885. Thrice he was elected to the post of the President of the Indian National Congress, in 1886, 1893 and in 1906. During his third term, he prevented a split between moderates and extremists in the party. The Congress’ demand for swaraj (self-rule) was first expressed publicly by him in his presidential address in 1906. Dadabhai Naoroji believed in non-violent and constitutional methods of protest. He died at the age of 92 on June 30, 1917.



Read more at http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-her…/dadabhai-naoroji.html…

 Courtesy : Tusna Park