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“Like sugar in milk”: reconstructing the genetic history of the Parsi population


Abstract

Background

The Parsis are one of the smallest religious communities in the world. To understand the population structure and demographic history of this group in detail, we analyzed Indian and Pakistani Parsi populations using high-resolution genetic variation data on autosomal and uniparental loci (Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA). Additionally, we also assayed mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms among ancient Parsi DNA samples excavated from Sanjan, in present day Gujarat, the place of their original settlement in India.

Results

Among present-day populations, the Parsis are genetically closest to Iranian and the Caucasus populations rather than their South Asian neighbors. They also share the highest number of haplotypes with present-day Iranians and we estimate that the admixture of the Parsis with Indian populations occurred ~1,200 years ago. Enriched homozygosity in the Parsi reflects their recent isolation and inbreeding. We also observed 48% South-Asian-specific mitochondrial lineages among the ancient samples, which might have resulted from the assimilation of local females during the initial settlement. Finally, we show that Parsis are genetically closer to Neolithic Iranians than to modern Iranians, who have witnessed a more recent wave of admixture from the Near East.

Conclusions

Our results are consistent with the historically-recorded migration of the Parsi populations to South Asia in the 7th century and in agreement with their assimilation into the Indian sub-continent’s population and cultural milieu “like sugar in milk”. Moreover, in a wider context our results support a major demographic transition in West Asia due to the Islamic conquest.

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This Bombay factory made ballot boxes for India’s first poll


Independent India was gearing up to hold its first elections in 1952 and inside a factory in the marshy suburbs of Mumbai’s Vikhroli, the workers were making history, literally.

It was the latter half of 1951 and from the outside, it was business as usual at Plant 1 of the Godrej & Boyce Mfg. Co. Ltd. But unbeknownst to many, the workers were part of a nationbuilding project, assigned the task of speedily manufacturing the first ever ballot boxes to be used in general elections in India.

Archives of the company indicate that a total of 12.83 lakh ballot boxes were produced in the Vikhroli factory in barely four months. “A newspaper, Bombay Chronicle, had printed an article on December 15, 1951, saying the factory was manufacturing 15,000 ballot boxes a day.

This, without affecting the production of any of their other products like safes, cupboards, cabinets and locks, proves that the workers at the factory were putting in extra hours every day to ensure that the ballot boxes were readied in time,” said Vrunda Pathare, chief archivist at Godrej.

An official from the archives division said an ad in The Times of India published by Godrej shows that the original order was for 12.24 lakh ballot boxes but they ended up making 12.83 lakh. “It’s probably because orders were given to other companies as well and those who did not finish them in time passed the order on to Godrej in the end,” said the official.

The production cost of one ‘olive green’ box came to Rs 5 and the model was finalised after testing 50 designs. The internal locking system in the ballot box was designed by a factory hand, Nathalal Panchal, after it was found that an external lock would inflate the making cost.

“We have anecdotal evidence that Panchal played a key role in suggesting the design for the internal locking mechanism,” said Pathare. That story is now part of an oral history project of 2006 when company officials interviewed KR Thanewala, the plant manager of Plant 1 in 1951, who is now no more. Thanewala had recalled during the interview that Plant 1 had just started in May 1951.

“Pirojsha Godrej (the owner) would come to the factory at 3 o’clock every afternoon asking us how it was going. And he got orders from other companies who had not somehow or the other managed to make them (ballot boxes). The mechanism was tested. Every box had to be checked. Click when it closes and click it should open. Once it was closed, without putting your finger inside and pulling the string, you cannot unlock it,” he said.

By February 1952, all the ballot boxes were manufactured, loaded onto railway wagons and sent to the 22 states in preparation for the holding of the polls. Thanewala, in his interview, describes how the boxes were moved: “…We had to walk to the station and back. And…I did a lot of night shifts. At night we (used to) light mashaals (torches) and with the mashaal, I used to walk from the railway tracks up to Vikhroli station. It was great fun.”

SAFE KEEPING: Bombay policemen guarding the ballot boxes that were used in the first Lok Sabha polls held over 1951-52

Bhavika.Jain1@timesgroup.com

Times of India, 17 March 2019, Pg. 15

WZCC Zoroastrian Shark Tank 2019


Are you a young entrepreneur? 
If yes, are you looking to get that extra capital to catapult your business into success?
Apply now to the first ever WZCC Zoroastrian Shark Tank 2019 held at
the 7th World Zoroastrian Youth Conference in Los Angeles, July 2019.

Fill in the application form here : https://goo.gl/forms/4iX3XcbB5PXrjB622
[Please upload relevant documents through the above form]

Stand a chance to pitch your idea in front of a panel of investors in Los Angeles in July!
Don’t let this opportunity slide!

Jehaan Kotwal – WZCC International Youth Director

Author Murzban F. Shroff to speak at the Emirates Airline Festival of Literature


Mumbai-based author, Murzban F. Shroff, will represent the city of his inspiration at the Emirates Literature Festival in Dubai. Shroff, a Commonwealth Writers’ Prize shortlisted author and a 6-times Pushcart Prize nominee, will have three events on 8 and 9 March 2019. https://www.emirateslitfest.com/authors/murzban-f-shroff/  

Shroff is the author of three books: Breathless in Bombay, a collection of short stories, rated by the Guardian as among the ten best Mumbai books; Waiting for Jonathan Koshy, a postmodern novel which qualified as a finalist for the prestigious Horatio Nelson Fiction Prize in New York; and Fasttrack Fiction, a book written specifically for the cell phone reader.

Shroff publishes extensively in the U.S. and UK with premier literary journals and has been invited to speak about his work at universities such as UC Berkeley, UCLA, and the University of Southern California. His work approach and contributions have been acknowledged and featured in a book titled “The Parsi Contribution to Indian Literature,” published by the Sahitya Akademi.    

An Interesting Anecdote


In 1884, the Cowasji Jehangir family visited England along with Jamshedji N Tata.
During this visit Jamshedji took my grandfather Sir C J (2nd Bart) aged 5, shopping to a fair. Evidently my great grandfather had given my grandfather one shilling as shopping allowance. The young boy Cowasji decided to purchase a bust of Queen Victoria costing two shillings. Jamshedji then stepped in and solved the dilemma by contributing the extra shilling !
The Tatas and Jehangirs were great friends. Jamshedji was particularly fond of my grandfather inspite of the exactly 40 years age difference and remained so till the former passed away in 1904.
A few years later Sir C J (1st Bart) was a co promoter of Tata Iron and Steel Co and also a founder director till his death in 1934. Subsequently his son the 2nd Bart was made a director, a position he held till 1962, the year of his death. He had however resigned a few months before owing to failing health.
I thought this cute story would be of interest as it was Jamshedji’s 180th Anniversary a few days ago and that my brother Jehangir was last month appointed a trustee of Sir Ratan Tata Trust.
This statue is still with our family. Notwithstanding that the Founder of Tatas paid for 50% of it we will not entertain any claims for it from the House of Tatas !!!
Cheers !
Adi Jehangir ( 7th March 2019 )


Photo taken on this trip on the cover of the book “ Bombay Then/Mumbai Now”.
L-R : Sir Cowasji Jehangir 1st Bart (1853-1934), Mr Jamshedji N Tata (1839-1904), Sir Cowasji Jehangir 2nd Bart (the boy with hat, 1879-1962), Miss Cooverbai Jehangir (1877-1954) . Seated: Lady Dhunbai Cowasji Jehangir (1860-1940).

Once Upon a Try – Epic journeys of invention and discovery


Explore humanity’s greatest inventions and discoveries in a new interactive online project by Google Arts & Culture, in collaboration with Parzor Foundation.

Wednesday, March 6th – Today, Google Arts & Culture launched Once Upon a Try – the largest online exhibition about inventions and discoveries ever curated. Collections, stories and knowledge from over 110 renowned institutions across 23 countries, including from Parzor Foundation, are brought together, highlighting millennia of major breakthroughs and the great minds behind them.

Everybody can now explore more than 400 interactive exhibitions that pay tribute to humanity’s greatest leaps in science and technology progress, and the visionaries that shaped our world, as well as tales of epic fails and happy accidents. Once Upon A Try also lets you dive into Street View to tour the sites of great discoveries, from deep underground inside CERN’s Large Hadron Collider to high in the sky onboard the International Space Station. Zoom into more than 200,000 artifacts in high definition, including the first recorded map of the Americas from 1508, and Albert Einstein’s letters, never before published online.

Parzor Foundation contributes the exhibition Breaking New Ground: Darashaw Nosherwan. The Story of Geologist Extraordinaire D.N. Wadia. The exhibition allows users a glimpse into the Indian Geologist’s life and his pioneering contribution to Indian and world geology. The exhibit includes images from the diaries he maintained on his field trips, his geological drawings and even a peek into his bookkeeping habits. Google Arts & Culture Technology will now allow this material including images from Professor Wadia’s personal rock collection, to be preserved for posterity.

Online visitors can discover

·      A special interactive story about the geologist pioneer Prof. DN Wadia with rare material to interest scientists, artists and just about anyone looking to study a fascinating life.

·      60+ new archives and objects related to Prof. DN Wadia (courtesy Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, photography by Krish Bhalla.)

Dr Shernaz Cama, Director of Parzor Foundation said “our collaboration with the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology and the innovative technology provided by this Google platform has allowed the work of Prof. D. N. Wadia to be made available for the benefit of the global geological and scientific community the world over. We are thrilled to be able to contribute to this global project with our exhibition on India’s forgotten Father of Geology.”

Ms Kritika Mudgal, Curator of Parzor Foundation’s exhibition Breaking New Ground: Darashaw Nosherwan, expressed gratitude to the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology for sharing their resources. “ Access to Prof. Wadia’s meticulous notes, his rather artistic geological sketches and his awe-inspiring rock collection was a wonderful opportunity. I am glad that the Google Arts & Culture Platform will now allow more of us to know about institutions such as the Wadia Institute in Dehradun, their remarkable collections and the significance of the pioneering work of those like Prof. Wadia to various fields of human endeavours across ages. ”

Mr Krish Bhalla, photographer for the exhibit, iterated the significance of digitizing artefacts through photography in an effort to preserve our heritage, as also of the contribution of the Google Arts & Culture Platform to the end of safeguarding artistic, cultural and scientific heritage in the modern world.

We invite everyone to participate in the first phase of an online collection that celebrates innovation and science. Through inspiring, and at times surprising, stories from over 100 partners, you can explore the inventions and discoveries that have shaped our world. Once Upon a Try is all about that first attempt, the idea, the journey of fulfilling a dream, and we hope it’ll give people that extra boost to find their very own eureka moment,” said Amit Sood, director of Google Arts & Culture.

The Parzor Exhibition may be accessed through: https://artsandculture.google.com/exhibit/RQKSorHWtx43JQ

Explore Once Upon a Try on Google Arts & Culture (g.co/onceuponatry) or using our app on iOS or Android, and join the conversation with #onceuponatry.

About Google Arts & Culture

Google Arts & Culture puts the collections of more than 1,800 museums at your fingertips. It’s an immersive way to explore art, history and the wonders of the world, from Van Gogh’s bedroom paintings to the women’s rights movement and the Taj Mahal. The Google Arts & Culture app is free and available online for iOS and Android. Our team has been an innovation partner for cultural institutions since 2011. We develop technologies that help preserve and share culture and allow curators to create engaging exhibitions online and offline, inside museums. Read about our latest projects on the Google Keyword blog.