Facing shortage of priests, Ahmedabad Parsi Panchayat eyes part-timers


At a time when the Parsi community’s numbers are on the decline, an issue has cropped up as a major threat to their temples, also known as Agiyaris – the dwindling number of full-time Mobads (priests). While the issue would affect Parsis across the country, the Ahmedabad Parsi Panchayat has found a way to deal with the situation.
 
With graduates drifting away from priesthood towards other professions, the Panchayat has engaged freelance priests of the younger generation, whose services can be availed when in need.
 
While Ahmedabad has two Agiyaris, 132-year-old Vakil Adariyan Agiyari located in Bukhara Mohulla at Khamasa and the other in Kankaria, currently, there are only five full-time priests for the two Agiyaris.
 
Speaking about the issue, Brigadier (retired) Jahangir Anklesaria, President, Parsi Panchayat, said: “Only a priest’s son can become a priest. The younger generation is looking for better opportunities and a better life which is why, not many are opting for full-time priesthood. It is a huge challenge. The Kankaria Agiyari has a priest who has not been keeping well for quite some time. It does get difficult as we need to offer prayers five times and ring a bell through the day. The younger generation priests offer their services to us as and when needed. While the youngest priest is in class 8, others are in various professions such as law, education, business and service, among others.”
 
He added, “I think this is happening in almost every religion. In the early days, anyone visiting a place of worship would bring grains and other things and offer to the priest. Things have changed now.”
 
There is a dearth of Mobads (priests) in the entire country but Parsis believe that the Atash Behram (holy fire) will keep glowing.
 
While priests have been moving for reasons such as education and higher pay packages, the most important of their duties are the five prayers that keep the sacred fire sacred.
 
Speaking to DNA, Vistasp H Dastur, one of the senior priests at Khamasa Agiyari said, “The issue of full-time priest is there as it requires a lot of commitment. But we are very happy here as we get bonus, medical help, etc. When needed, we reach out to nearly 10 part-time priests who practice other professions.”
 
Interestingly, Dastur’s family took care of the Kankaria Agiyari for nearly 48 years. He says, “My entire family including my brother, used to take care of Khamasa Agiyari but it has been two and a half years since I have moved to Khamasa Agiyari. As per our rituals, we need to offer prayers five times a day that begins from sunrise till midnight and these prayers are mandatory.”
 
Further sharing about the rigorous training that a boy has to undergo upon choosing priesthood, Dastur said, “During the first phase, Navar, they have to stay in isolation at the Agiyari for 30 days after which comes the second phase, Martab, they have to follow the same for 10 days. They are not allowed to touch water or have bath and recite prayers all day.”
 
In some countries such as the US and Iran, women priests (Mobedyar) are qualified to perform boi, but in India, only male priests are permitted to tend to the sacred fire.
 
Bejoo R Jilla, a resident of Mumbai, is developing a programme to offer pension to priests from his community. He said, “Dwindling numbers of priests in our community is a serious concern hence I am working out a plan to offer pension to priests, to encourage them to opt for it as a profession.”
Bejoo R Jilla, a resident of Mumbai, is developing a programme to offer pension to priests from his community. He said, “Dwindling numbers of priests in our community is a serious concern hence I am working out a plan to offer pension to priests, to encourage them to opt for it as a profession.”
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Hamaysht Ceremony


Hamaysht ceremony in Surat Atash Behram Saheb

 

Attached here is a brief explanation of the Hamayasht ceremony being performed in Surat. This ceremony has not been performed for several years and those who can go across to Surat or are the local residents there can consider themselves fortunate to witness such a one-off kriya.

 

The Hamayasht ceremony is a long-winded ceremony in the Zoroastrian religion similar to the “Mahayagna” of the Hindus. There are 2 types of Hamayasht ceremonies, the “Motti” Hamayasht and “Nani” Hamayasht. On enquiries with High priests and scholars it has been observed that this ceremony has not been performed in India since the past several years. This ceremony comprises of the Yazashne, Vendidad, Baaj and Afringan in reverence of the following Yazatas.

 

Dadar Ahuramazda.

Teshtar Tir Yazad.

Khorshed Yazad.

Meher Yazad.

Avan Ardivisur Banu.

Adar Yazad.

Khordad Ameshaspand.

Amardad Ameshaspand.

Asfandamard Ameshaspand.

Govad Yazad.

Sarosh Yazad.

Farokh Farvardin.(Arda Fravash).

 

The Surat D. N. Modi Atashbehram is a prominent fire temple for most Pav Mahal ceremonies. Just as the Iranshah Atashbehram at Udwada is popular as the King of fires, and Navsari is termed as “Dharam ni tekri” or Mantle of religion, so also Surat is the preferred place for all Pav Mahal ceremonies. With due permission of the High priest of Surat, Dastur Noshirwan Manchershah the “Motti” Hamayasht ceremony has already commenced on Shenshahi Roj Adar, Mah Dey, i.e. 26th May 2003.

 

As per the information collected from senior mobed sahebs of the Atashbehram, the “Nani” Hamayasht ceremony had been performed 40 years ago in the memory of Daulatbanoo Jehangirji Gheewala. The “Motti” Hamayasht which is now being performed will comprise of 144 Yazashne, 144 Vendidad, 144 Afringan and 144 Baaj with the kshnuman of each of the 12 fareshtas (Yazatas) listed above. The expenditure for this will run into lakhs of Rupees. This ceremony is being conducted by a chust Bombay based Zarathushtri by the name of Hoshang Bengali in memory of his dear departed wife Homai. This ceremony will last for 70 days ! The Hamayasht requires 5 pairs of Yaozdathregar mobeds with proper Bareshnum Nahn.

 

The Mobeds selected for this gigantic task are Ervad Farokh B. Turel, Ervad Noshir B. Turel, Ervad Nairyosang J. Turel, Ervad Faredun J. Turel, Ervad Harvespa A. Sanjana, Ervad Adil A. Sanjana, Ervad Dara J. Bharda, Ervad Zubin P. Rabadi, Ervad Burjor F. Aibara, Ervad Kobad J. Bharda, and Ervad Porus S. Zarolia. These mobeds will perform for 70 days continuously with all tarikats of purity.

 

We hope and are confident that with the performance of this gigantic religious ceremony our Parsi Zarathushtri brothers and sisters will once again live in happiness, peace, unity and unflinching faith towards our deen and wish that the blessings of all the fareshtas descend on us in plenty to eradicate ahrimanic influences now prevalent with the help of the strong manthravani that emanate from this ceremony.

 

The trustees of the Modi Atashbehram, Vada Dasturji Saheb of Surat, Naib Dasturji Saheb and the 10 yaozdathregar mobed sahibs performing the ceremony cordially invite one and all humdin of Surat and outside towns, cities, countries to witness this kriya and be fortunate enough to receive the blessings of all the fareshtas and Pak Dadar Ahuramazda.

Guarding the faith


A bold new initiative to safeguard the community’s 150 or so fire temples all overIndia has been launched by a group of traditionalists, old and new. Called rather unimaginatively the Parsi Zoroastrian Guards of the Holy Fire (PZGHF), the trust lists five objectives including collecting data on all the fire temples, looking to their welfare, ensuring a regular supply of firewood and the services of a part-time mobed on a daily basis.

One would normally dismiss such an effort as a wishful endeavor by well meaning individuals. For, how can a shrinking community sustain the numerous institutions that were created for a population double that of today? The former president of the Delhi Parsi Anjuman (DPA) raised this issue in a letter to the editor (see “Of greater import,” page 6). The Mengusi Dharamshala in the DPA agiary complex resolved the issue of low occupancy by allowing non Parsis to avail of their rooms. The agiary is out of bounds to non-Zoroastrians, though the children of interfaith marriages where one parent is a Parsi are permitted.
These are some ways to preserve Parsi institutions but the PZGHF and like minded bodies are unlikely to follow any of these steps. In fact such thinking would be labeled heresy. The very inclusion of the term “Parsi Zoroastrian” in their nomenclature means these are hard core traditionalists.
Doongerwadi is a prime example of inflexibility. The Bombay Parsi Punchayet (BPP) incurs an annual loss of Rs 4.5 crores (USD 6,56,017) or Rs 66,000 per corpse last year (4,50,00,000/675) yet the trustees refuse funerary prayers in their 11 bunglis (most of which lie idle or are rarely used) to those opting for cremation. The BPP is bound by their trust deed to see to the welfare of the living, yet spends the largest amount of their dwindling, financial resources on the dead. Salaries are delayed, while mobed and third child monthly subsidies remain unpaid for sometimes as much as six months. Some trustees justify their lopsided priorities claiming the trust was created to preserve the dakhmas, everything else being secondary. A cursory reading of Sapur Desai’s book The History of the Bombay Parsi Punchayet, 1860 to 1960 would dispel this misconception. The book has a foreword by then chairman of the BPP B. K. Boman-Behram, a traditionalist, who noted, “Events compelled the Parsi Punchayet to shed its quasi-traditional character and assume that of a social welfare organization of the community.”
Another former chairman of the BPP was asked about the justification for spending so much on Doongerwadi where less than two bodies are consigned a day to the two or three Towers of Silence in use. He replied, “What do you want us to do?” He noted the trust had to safeguard the 55 acres of the Malabar Hill estate. Property as always is the BPP’s prime priority, beneficiaries come second.
To the traditionalists, a non Parsi intruding in their religious sphere is anathema. A former BPP trustee with mobility problems who was accompanied by his non-Parsi assistant onto the verandah of an atash behram found other worshipers loudly objecting to the presence of a parjat, even at the edge of the portico. In another, earlier incident, a traditionalist called for action against the priest at the Godavara Agiary run by the BPP because he permitted a non-Parsi assistant to wait on the open porch (otla) while her elderly mistress prayed within.
Thus emotions run high on these perceived transgressions and should the Guards make an attempt at any reasonable, logical compromise, they would face the full wrath of the orthodox. As it is the traditionalist World Alliance of Parsi Irani Zarthoshtis received flak for defining a Parsi as a child born of a Parsi father (the legally correct definition) instead of both Parsi parents.
The Guards hopefully will have their priorities right. They have at their helm the astute and efficient lawyer Berjis Desai, who retired as the managing partner of one of the country’s largest legal firms and now engages in a busy private practice. Though he describes himself as an “unsuccessful community activist” he has most of the time succeeded brilliantly. He engineered the scheme for Universal Adult Franchise (UAF) over 10 years ago with the support of the then BPP chairman Minoo Shroff and some of his co-trustees and saw the reform through the legal labyrinths. He subsequently derided  UAF alleging decision making was handed over to the masoor pav (lentil and bread) eating Parsis instead of the elite, National Centre for the Performing Arts  going types. His legal skills along with that of another traditionalist lawyer, Zerick Dastur persuaded the Bombay High Court to stay for a short time the construction of the Metro underground rail near the two atash behrams and to realign the tunnels by 3.5 meters.
A former liberal turned conservative and a perceptive and highly skilled writer, Desai has straddled both sides of the divide. He will bring his considerable persuasive skills and networking abilities to the task. With him heading the trust, raising a corpus of five crores will be an achievable goal. But whether they will then be able to deliver the goods is a question mark.
Parsiana asked him why the Guards should succeed when other organizations have failed. His reply, “I am determined. (I’ll) dedicate 30-40% of my time… office recruitment (is) in progress.” Other potential trustees named are Jamshed Sukhadwala, Ervads (Drs) Parvez Bajan and Ramiyar Karanjia, Hosi Dastur, Pervin Mistry and Jehangir Bisney.
But even a Berjis Desai with all his skills and with the likes of blogger and Secunderabad-Hyderabad Anjuman trustee Bisney on the trust, the PZGHF will face invincible foes: diminishing numbers, indifference and an obdurate community. Will fire temple trustees share with others their trust deeds, their financial position, number of worshippers, mobeds and also permit an inspection? How many of them even know the answer to some of these questions? Or even care?
Even if the trustees succeed in keeping the flame burning, preserving the physical structure and obtaining the services of a mobed, the dearth of worshipers will remain. The PZGHF has plans to encourage frequent visits to more fire temples but for the elderly, mobility is an issue. Transport and assistance will have to be provided.
We can only wish the Guards well in their endeavor. Any and every attempt to preserve our heritage is to be encouraged. But by being exclusive instead of inclusive, they have limited their slim chances of success.

PARSIANA

EDITORIAL

21-JULY-2018

 

Parsis fear for city’s first fire temple


Calcutta’s first Parsi fire temple on Ezra Street is hemmed in by later constructions, some of which are allegedly encroachments on the heritage premises (top); (above) the entrance to the decrepit fire temple that is owned by a family-run trust and listed as a Grade 1 heritage structure in the civic records.
Pictures by Sanjoy Chattopadhyaya

Calcutta: The death of the last known trustee of Calcutta’s first Parsi fire temple, defunct and decrepit but listed as a Grade I heritage building, has raised concern in the community about land sharks laying their hands on the property.

Cursetjee Manackjee Rustomjee, who died aged 81 on April 10, was a descendant of the family that had built the Ezra Street fire temple. Nobody in the otherwise close-knit community seems to know if Cursetjee shared the trustee rights with someone before his death.

“Cursetjee used to live on the premises of the fire temple, which used to be run by a family trust. But I have no idea who the other members were and who will look after the property in his absence,” said a community member who did not want to be named.

According to an almost blighted plaque outside the building, barely visible from Ezra Street because of ugly constructions all around, the Rustomjee Cowasjee Banajee fire temple was built in 1839.

Rustomjee Cowasjee is acknowledged as the first Parsi to settle in Calcutta with his family. He was a businessman who bought the erstwhile Calcutta Docking Company (now Kidderpore Docks) and also started an insurance firm, a paper mill and a cotton gin.

The temple he built has remained unused for ceremonies since 1989. Portions of the premises now house shops selling mostly lights. A part of the premises has allegedly been encroached on. One of the shopkeepers told Metro that there was an attempted break-in into the room that Cursetjee lived in on the evening of April 10, the day of his death.

Little is known of Cursetjee other than his lineage because he apparently kept to himself and didn’t even attend Parsi community gatherings.

Bahadur Postwalla, one of the older members of the community, said the Parsis of Calcutta were concerned that the property would cease to exist in Cursetjee’s absence. “Since it is a part of Parsi heritage, we wouldn’t want it to be encroached on further. We want its restoration,” he said.

Postwalla’s initiation ( kushti) ceremony was held at the Ezra Street temple in 1948. “It was free of encroachment then. All this started in the 1980s,” he said.

Mohammad Islam Haque, a 63-year-old man who owns a shop on the premises, had been Cursetjee’s companion for nearly four decades. He would depend on Haque to run errands for him.

Haque has written to chief minister Mamata Banerjee and several senior police officers, including the joint commissioner of police (crime), about some people trying to break into Cursetjee’s home.

Haque told Metro that the premises of the fire temple – the plot originally measured a bigha and 18 cottahs – had been gradually encroached on.

The temple stands in the middle of a rectangular plot, with separate structures on four sides that were used by members of the Banajee clan.

“There used to be a library to the east of the premises. It was forcibly occupied in 1989 by some men who assaulted Cursetjee and threw away all items that the library housed. We had reported the incident to police but there was no response. A company now functions out of that room,” said Haque, who had taken Cursetjee to the Infectious Diseases Hospital in Beleghata when he was taken ill.

The fire temple is categorised as a Grade I structure in the Graded List of Heritage Buildings, published by the Calcutta Municipal Corporation.

The Parsis of Calcutta – only 450 of them are left – visit the fire temple on Metcalfe Street for prayers. That temple is run by a public trust.

https://www.telegraphindia.com/calcutta/parsis-fear-for-city-s-first-fire-temple-225137

Parsis form team to maintain fire temples, look after priests and staff in Mumbai


Most of these Agiaries are managed by private trusts and are not a part of Bombay Parsi Punchayat (BPP).
Most of these Agiaries are managed by private trusts and are not a part of Bombay Parsi Punchayat (BPP). (HT file )

To ensure all Zoroastrian Agiaries and Atash Behrams — two types of fire temples, the second being of the highest order —in Mumbai have enough funds and are well-maintained, a team has been formed under Athornan Mandal to look after the upkeep of fire temples. The Mandal, an organisation which looks after priests in the community, has floated survey forms within religious organisations to compile data.

“We didn’t have a complete data of how many priests are actually working and how much they earn. There are times when some Agiaries do not have funds, as a result a few priests are paid lesser than their counterparts. As the community receives a lot of donation, through this initiative their income could be supplemented,” said Ervad Ramiyar Karanjia, committee member, Athornan Mandal.

Survey forms that have been circulated seeks details such as land area, built-up area of the property, average worshippers visiting the place, details of various rituals conducted, number of Mobeds (priests) and staff employed and the remuneration paid to them and the details of expenditure incurred by the trust.

Most of these Agiaries are managed by private trusts and are not a part of Bombay Parsi Punchayat (BPP), the main caretaker of Parsi-Zoroastrian properties in the city. As a result, doubts were raised within the community about the survey being conducted.

“A part of the community isn’t happy sharing certain details about the Agiary because it feels their rights would be infringed upon. But when the survey form was sent to us, there was a clear mention of what the details have been sought for. When the plan is initiated, it will help maintain our religious places better,” said Anahita Desai, trustee. JD Amaria Sodawaterwala Agiary, Marine Lines.

Dasturji Khurshed K Dastur, president of Athornan Mandal, said that a fund would be set-up eventually for repairs and maintenance of religious places, to provide kathi (wood), remuneration for priests and other support staff and to make the system of Agiaries and priests self-sustaining.

“It has been noted that many Agyaries in India are starved of funds and not able to maintain the property or provide for mobeds and support staff. Some of them also do not have adequate devotees visiting them, as a result of which the profession of clergy becomes unattractive to young Zoroastrians. The final plan, when prepared, will be recommendatory and implemented only if the parties concerned give their approval,” said Dastur.

Yesha Kotak
Hindustan Times

https://www.hindustantimes.com/mumbai-news/parsis-form-team-to-maintain-fire-temples-look-after-priests-and-staff-in-mumbai/story-4u6iuR172ykJ46oHE8meUL.html

Sacred fire alive for 1,550 years at Iranian Zoroastrian temple


Iran’s central city of Yazd is home to one of the fire temples most sacred to Zoroastrians worldwide with a flame that has been burning for nearly 1,550 years.  The Yazd temple is one of the world’s nine Zoroastrian fire temples which hold the sacred Atash Behram, meaning Fire of Victory.

Zoroastrian Eternal Flame at the Fire Temple in Yazd, Central Iran Photo by Adam Jones (watch related video by Press TV)

Atash Behram is the highest grade of fire in Zoroastrian fire temples and its preparation, which took place several centuries ago, involved an elaborate purification ritual that took almost a year.

The Yazd fire temple was built in the Iranian central city of Yazd in 1934 in the Achaemenid architecture style in brick masonry, similar to fire temples in India. It is located in the middle of a vast garden of pine, cedar and fruit trees with a vast circular water pool in front of it.

The sacred fire of the temple is said to have been burning since 470 AD in the Sassanian Empire. It was originally started in the Pars Karyan fire temple in Larestan County, Fars Province, but it was later transferred to several other temples and secret locations to keep it burning until it was finally consecrated in the Yazd temple in 1934.

The sacred flame is currently preserved inside a bronze vessel visible from behind a glass wall and only Zoroastrians are allowed to go to the sanctum. A person called Hirbod is in charge of keeping the fire burning.

Zoroastrians are required to perform special rituals to enter the temple. Apart from personal cleanliness, the pilgrims have to remove their shoes. Men have to wear white caps and women need to put on white scarves and light color clothes.

 


Zoroastrian Fire Temple in Yazd, Iran (Yazd Atash Behram)
By Zenith210 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons

 

In 1999, the Yazd fire temple was registered in Iran’s National Heritage List and some sections of the temple have been open to visit for tourists where they can see the fire behind the glass wall.

Origins of fire temples

Zoroastrianism is one of the world’s oldest known monolithic religions and, contrary to some misperceptions, fire only represents purity and the brightness of God in its belief system. Documents indicate that Zoroastrians initially did not have fire temples and they normally prayed at homes or on top of the hills.

The tradition of fire temples originates from the times when Iranian communities developed fire houses to keep fire burning for everyday uses. In this way, people did not have to make fire separately and could take the fire they needed from fire houses.

The fire houses finally turned into an essential part of Zoroastrian communities called Astash Kadeh or Atashgah and they gradually served multiple community purposes, including as places of worship, courts, educational centers and health clinics.

The construction of fire temples flourished during the Sassanian dynasty (224 to 651 AD) during which Zoroastrianism was announced as the official religion of the Persian Empire.

Nowadays, most of the world’s active fire temples are located in India which is home to the world’s largest Zoroastrian community.

Meanwhile, the Zoroastrians in Iran, who mainly live in the central provinces of Yazd, Esfahan, Tehran and the southern province of Kerman, still have their own fire temples where they perform their religious rituals.

… Payvand News – 04/04/18 … —

Source: Press TV

http://www.payvand.com/news/18/apr/1011.html

Parsis in a flame war


Orthodox community members, reformists divided over sanctity of fire in Pune temple
Mumbai: For the reformists who built the newly opened Asha Vahishta Zoroastrian Centre in Pune’s Kondhwa area, the fire it houses is a holy one, kindled after carrying out rituals like a jashn ceremony and recital of the Atash Niyeash prayer. But the orthodox in the community are deriding it is just like “any other bonfire.”

At the root of the heated words is the fact that the centre welcomes Parsi Zoroastrians who have married outside the faith. Parsi Zoroastrians have traditionally not allowed non-Parsi spouses to convert to the faith or even enter agiaries and participate in rituals like funeral ceremonies. Further, children of female members of the community who marry outside are also not considered Parsi.

“The idea of our centre was to welcome all and not differentiate on the basis of religion or gender, “said Vispy Wadia, founder member of the Association for Revival of Zoroastrianism, under which the centre has been built. Around 150 Parsis — including Maharookh and Darius Forbes, Kerbanu and Viraf Pudumjee, Darius Khambata, Cyruz Guzder, and Bapsi and Fali Nariman — and the Pirojsha Godrej Foundation donated funds and the land for the centre was purchased in 2010. Work on its construction began in 2014.

“These religiously ignorant legal persons like Fali Nariman and Darius Khambatta have made a mockery and insult of our glorious religion and they must be prosecuted,” says Yazdi Desai, chairman of the Bombay Parsi Punchayet. “The so-called fire temple in Pune is definitely not consecrated. It is just an ordinary fire, like a scout camp fire, and anyone can pray before it.” Dinshaw Mehta, a former BPP trustee, says there is a whole ritual for consecration of an agiary fire: “The Pune fire is a joke on the donors. Just lighting wood in an afarganu vessel is not consecration.” Medioma Bhada, a retired naval officer, says that he is upset with the centre being referred to as a fire temple. “One can call it a prayer hall but not a fire temple.”

Mr. Wadia retorts, “The fire may not be holy for them, but it is for us.”

Worli precedent

In 2015, reformers had built a prayer hall near the Worli crematorium for community members who chose cremation instead of the tradition of leaving the body in the Tower of Silence to be consumed by scavenger birds. Since they were not allowed to conduct the four day funeral prayers inside the doongerwadi, the idea of alternate prayer hall was executed. “In a way it is good,” Mr. Mehta said. “Just as the Worli prayer hall stopped the demand for a cremate-ni-bungli at doongerwadi, the setting up of this cosmopolitan fire temple will hopefully stop the inter-married ladies from moving courts to demand right of entry.”

Two high profile battles are already being fought in the courts: a woman is fighting for her grandchildren born to a Hindu father to get entry to the only fire temple in Kolkata; and another Parsi woman married to a Hindu is demanding similar rights from the Valsad Anjuman in the Supreme Court.

Jyoti Shelar

http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/parsis-in-a-flame-war/article22289350.ece

Kash of Paak Atash Behram Padshah Saheb


On the joyous occasion of the salgireh of Paak Banaji Atash Behram Saheb, am pleased to share the below article.

The sanctified land, divine edifice and sacred Kash of Paak Atash Behram Padshah Saheb

Disclaimers: 1. The article is a feeble attempt to encapsulate the essence of the key messages as explained in the Purso Pasokh series by the late doyen of Ilm-e-Khshnoom Seth Jehangirji Sohrabji Chiniwala. The Gujarati articles of Seth Jehangirji appeared in Parsi Avaz weekly of 27th February and 6th March 1955 (Vol. 8, Issue 35 & 36). Readers are strongly encouraged to read these beautiful Gujarati articles from the Parsi Avaz weekly in order to gain a fuller and richer understanding of the aforesaid subject.

  1. This article provides glimpses about the mystical knowledge pertaining to Atash Behram Padshah Saheb purely from a Khshnoom point of view and it is hoped that no misunderstanding gets created on account of the same. Certain technical terms in Gujarati have been translated into the most approximate equivalent term in English and readers are requested to bear in mind such limitations of the English vocabulary as also those of the translator.
  2. This article is recommended for reading by true seekers of truths of our religion who have an open, objective and unbiased bent of mind. This article is not for those who are allergic to the divine knowledge of Khshnoom and also not for those who do not have implicit faith in the time-tested tenets and traditions of our pristine religion.

Click to continue reading… Kash of Paak Atash Behram Padshah Saheb

Courtesy : K F Keravala