Category Archives: Doongerwadi Process

Initiative to extend financial support to Parsi Pallbearers


Zoroastrian Charity Funds of Hong Kong, Canton & Macao

initiative to extend financial support to Parsi Pallbearers

(Nassesalars & Khandhias) employed at various Dakhmas in India.

In Zoroastrian theology all dead matter is considered unhygienic and polluting.  Parsi Pallbearers (Nassesalars & Khandhias) are corpse bearers invested with Priest like duties and responsible for protecting the living from contamination by the corpse. Theologically Pallbearers are supposed to hold a venerated position, but that is sadly not the case in present day and times.

It is only Zoroastrians who do not have recourse to any other professional positions who gravitate towards becoming Pallbearers at functional Doongerwadi’s / Towers of Silence at various parts of India, especially the west coast.     

The incomes of Parsi Pallbearers are not only modest compared to other professions, but they function under extremely trying conditions that often cause emotional strain.

With a view to providing our Parsi Pallbearers some financial relief as well as to make them feel appreciated, WZO Trust Funds requested the generous and caring Trustees of Zoroastrian Charity Funds of Hong Kong, Canton & Macao, to consider extending financial support to this segment of our community, which they readily and willingly agreed. WZO Trust Funds thereafter requested various Anjumans that have Towers of Silence (Dakhmas) under their jurisdiction to provide us with a list of individuals that served as Pallbearers.

We have now received a final list of 76 individuals who perform the duties of Pallbearers at various Towers of Silence (Dakhmas). Upon the recommendation of WZO Trust Funds, the Trustees of Zoroastrian Charity Funds of Hong Kong, Canton & Macao have agreed to financially extend support on a quarterly basis (July-Sept 2019) onwards amounting to Rs.22,500 (Rs.7,500 per month) for a period of one year, thereafter to be reviewed and considered for renewal.

It is hoped that the support that will be extended will not only provide a modicum of financial relief to the Parsi Pallbearers but will also make them realise that the community appreciates their services.

It will not be out of place to reiterate that Trustees of Zoroastrian Charity Funds of Hong Kong, Canton & Macao have as an institution been extending maximum support through WZO Trust Funds to Zoroastrian individuals in India requiring assistance for meeting medical expenses, towards the pursuit of higher education, providing financial relief on quarterly and piecemeal basis to individuals who are economically challenged or in different forms of distress. The present initiative is yet one more illustration of their large heartedness, benevolence and concern for our community.

Prayers after Death


Pad-ruz Yane Uthamnani Mahan Kriya, a 1916 Gujarati book by Mr. Beheramshah Naoroji Shroff (પાદ-રૂઝ યાને ઉઠમણાંની મહાન ક્રિયા: ગુજરવા બાદ પહેલા ચાર દિવસની ક્રિયાઓની મોતેબરી – સચકાર, ગેહસારણું, તથા પાયદસ્તના અસલ કાયદાઓ તથા પાદ-રૂઝ યાને પાછલી રાતનાં ઉઠમણાંની ક્રિયા.

Click Here for – 2015.249383-Pad-ruz-Yane

THE ASSOCIATION FOR PERFORMANCE OF THE FIRST YEAR NECESSARY DEATH CEREMONIES OF THE PARSI ZOROASTRIANS


The Association for Performance of the First Year Necessary Death Ceremonies of the Parsi Zoroastrians

 E. Mithaiwala Agiary Compound, Jehangir Daji Cross Lane, Sleater Road, Grant Road (W), Mumbai 400007. Registration No. F-80 (Bom)

PUBLIC NOTICE

A Society by the name of The Association For Performance Of The First Year Necessary Death Ceremonies Of The Parsi Zoroastrians was founded in the year 1942 for the purpose of performing the essential death ceremonies of Parsi Zoroastrian individuals who desire to have the same performed for themselves, but do not have any relatives who will get the ceremonies performed.

 The Society is headed by Ervad Dr. Ramiyar Karanjia, Chairman of the Association, and ably guided by Ervad Aspandiar Dadachanji, Panthaky, Vatcha Gandhi Agiary, Mrs. Shernaz D.Mehta, Director, Zoroastrian Co-operative Bank Ltd. and other Trustees.

The Society has arrangements with a few Agiaries for the Performance Of The First Year Necessary Death Ceremonies in different areas in Mumbai and Pune. The Society has received a heartening response from many Zoroastrians and who have since become its members.

The Society  offers two Options:

Option 1 is the economical scheme, priced at Rs. 30,000/-, covering the essential after death ceremonies for one year including Muktad.

Option 2, priced at Rs.55,000/-, covers the essential after death ceremonies for one year including Muktad, a few days of rituals and one Vendidad.

 

Zoroastrians desiring to become members of this Scheme or for further details can contact :

Mr. Ariez Kharas. Administrator. Tel. 022 23870283 or 9769761284.

 

Ervad Aspandiar Dadachanji, Panthaky, Vatcha Gandhi Agiary, Hughes Road  Tel. 022 23803826 or 919820493812

Ervad Kersi Bhadha,Panthaky, M.J.Wadia Agiary, Lalbaug    Tel. 022 24702207

Ervad Viraf Pavri, Panthaky, B. C. Batliwalla Agiary, Tardeo Road  Tel. 022 23530142

 Ervad Hormuzd A.Dadachanji,Panthaky, Mithaiwala Agiary, Jehangir Daji Street, Grant Road (West)  Tel. 919820493812

 Ervad Rusi J.Katrak,Panthaky,Mehella Patel Agiary,Balaram Street, Grant Road.Mumbai 400 007.  

Ervad Parvez M.Bajan,Panthaky,Seth B.M.Mevawala Agiary,Victoria gardens,Byculla,Mumbai 400 027. Tel.23716799 (Res).

 Zoroastrians who desire to get their first year after death ceremonies performed should first become members of the Society by paying a nominal sum of Rs.51/- and, thereafter, can opt for either of the schemes mentioned above.

The Society is registered as per the Society’s Registration Act and also under the Bombay Public Trust Act and is being looked after by its Board of Trustees. Community members may take advantage of this Scheme depending on their needs.

A General Body Meeting of The Association will be held on Saturday,the 6th of January,2018 at 11 a.m. at the Administrative Office of the Association.

Dokhmenashini Vs Cremation – A Comparison


  1. Dokhmas are not only for disposal of dead bodies but also to liberate Ravan (soul)
    from the worldly attachments. (i.e. Maya in Gujarati). Cremation just disposes the
    body and there is no mechanism to liberate Ravan.
  2. Dokhmas are a consecrated place with long and exhaustive liturgical ceremonies
    done during the construction. No consecrated ceremonies exist for cremation.
  3. Natural elements like air, fire, water or earth are not defiled even one percent. While
    during cremation fire and air elements are defiled besides causing nuisance and
    health problems to the nearby localities. E.g. Chandanwadi at Dhobi talao.
  4. Dokhmas are kept open from the top, so as to allow sunrays to fall on the dead
    bodies. This has two types of effect on the bodies. First drying up of body so that
    putrefaction stops and secondly the minutest of body particles – atoms (or anasars)
    are taken up by the sun rays and given to Dahm Yazad – a Fareshta especially for this
    purpose. That is why the tenth day ceremony is known as ‘Dasmoo’. Cremation does
    not get benefit of sunrays.
  5. When a body part like limb etc. get separated due to accident or surgery, that part
    should also be given the benefit of Dokhmenashini though the human being is still
    alive. Each and every part of the body should be given the benefit of Dokhmenashini
    as well as Khorshed nagirashni, i.e. sunrays, so that every atom of the body goes to
    Dahm Yazad. This is a smooth transition from the physical to spiritual world. No
    benefit of sunrays if body is cremated.
  6. The death ceremonies of a Zoroastrian starts from Sachkar, Geh sahrnu and finally
    Dokhmenashini. When a body is consigned in Dokhma, no priest is required to
    perform any ceremony, but 101 cotton threads which were embedded in the
    Dokhma during construction time had absorbed these ceremonies done during that
    time (like CD or tape which records the sound) and these recorded ceremonies
    remain forever in Dokhma which help the Ravan of a Zarthosti to liberate from this
    world and it joyfully goes to its destination in the other world, i.e. Minoi world.
    Secondly, it cuts off lots of putrefaction (Naso). Once the Sachkar ceremony is
    started, no other person except Zoroastrian can see the dead body till it goes into
    Dokhma. Only after Dokhmenashini is done, afternoon and night Uthamna and
    Charum ceremony (4th day) can be performed. If a body is cremated, all the above
    ceremonies are null and void and has absolutely no effect on progress of Ravan.
  7. During first three days, the Zoroastrian Ravan remains in this world under protection
    of Sarosh Yazad, so that evil forces do not attack or capture it. That is why nobody
    has heard about Parsi ghost or witch. Crematorium has no protection of Sarosh
    Yazad.
  8. As per our religion, Dokhmas are revered as the holy place. That is why we have a
    prayer of “Dokhma-No-Namaskar” Whenever a Zarthosthi visits Doongerwadi, he is
    supposed to pray this Namaskar. While for burial ground or crematorium, there is no
    such prayer.
  9. When a dead body is put for cremation, the relatives – dear and near ones commit
    unpardonable sin of putting dead body on fire, which is revered as “Son of Dadar
    Ahura Mazda” and thus insulting the creator. When we want to fulfill our wishes, we
    run to Iranshah, Atashbehrams and agiaries fires and after that during the death you
    forget and defile the holy fire by doing cremation. What type of faith is it?
  10. Our prophet Asho Zarthushtra gave us strict instructions not to defile natural
    elements like fire, earth, water or air. Dokhmenashini takes care of all the elements.
    Remember, ours is the first religion of the world who proclaimed that the nature, i.e.
    environment should be protected.
  11. When a human body which is composed of kilos of proteins and acids burn, you get
    foul smell in the surroundings. We experience that while passing through
    Chandanwadi and worli areas. We inhale this foul smell which goes into your body
    and causes various diseases like T.B., Asthma, Cancer, etc. and also endangers birds,
    plantations, etc.
  12. Thousands of years back our prophet Asho Zarthushtra has shown the way and gave
    us the system of Dokhmenashini so that we can protect our environment. This
    system is appreciated by scientist who have studied it and found to be best, most
    efficient, most hygiene and perfect to the core. Cremation does not protect even
    one percent of environment.
  13. If a Zoroastrian wishes that he/she be cremated after his death or he has written in
    his last will, his near and dear one will be doing a great service to him/her by doing
    Dokhmenashini. They will be blessed by such Ravan, because this Ravan during his
    life time did not realise the true facts of the religion. In 1971 when a trustee of BPP
    went against Dokhma in favour of cremation and made tremendous propaganda, but
    could not succeed in his aim. On his death bed after sufferings, he wished that his
    body should be put in Dokhma and finally it was done. This is the natural way of
    realization of a human being whose thought went astray for some time.
  14. So long as a dead body of Zarthoshti is not laid down in Dokhma, its salvation does
    not take place. The birds are only for disposal of dead and not for salvation of Ravan,
    which every Zarthoshti understand. Khorshed yazad takes care of both.
  15. Dokhmenashini is most supreme for Zarthoshtis and that is why Dokhmas are sacred
    where Naso (microbes of infection) are destroyed and not created.
  16. During plague epidemic in Mumbai some years ago, 15 to 20 bodies used to come to
    Dokhma, but at that time no problem arose. No pallbearers died because of handling
    of dead and even birds were not affected. Similarly, during influenza epidemic no
    problem arose.
  17. Oh Parsis, behold and fear by disrespecting son of Dadar Ahura Mazda, i.e. fire. Think
    before you leap. Our forefathers used to say do not play with fire and that is very
    true.
    The above write up has been taken from lectures of our guru Behesti Minocher
    Nasserwanji Pundol saheb who was in close contact with Pak Magav Sahebs of
    Demavand koh.
    Summing up, those who do propaganda in favour of cremation and built the so called
    prayer hall at Worli, thereby bringing Zarthoshti towards cremation plus those mobeds
    who are doing fictitious ceremonies there, have taken curse of fire – son of Dadar Ahura
    Mazda and also of all Ravans put for burning.
    The above article has been written with the faith for those doubting about
    Dokhmenashini. We sincerely hope now that after reading the above points, they should
    change their thinking and stick to Zoroastrian customs, as enunciated by our beloved
    Prophet of Prophets Asho Zarathushtra.
    Amen!

 

Courtesy : Cyrus Cooper

Performance of the First Year Necessary Death Ceremonies


The Association for Performance of the First Year Necessary Death Ceremonies of the Parsi Zoroastrians.

  1. E. Mithaiwala Agairy Compound, Jehangir Daji Cross Lane, Slater Road,

Grant Road (W), Mumbai 400007. Registration No. F-80 (Bom)

 

A Society by the name of The Association For Performance Of The First Year Necessary Death Ceremonies Of The Parsi Zoroastrians was founded in the year 1942 for the purpose of performing the essential death ceremonies of Parsi Zoroastrian individuals who desire to have the same performed for themselves, but do not have any relatives who will get it performed.

 

The Society is headed by Ervad Dr. Ramiyar Karanjia, Chairman of the Association, and ably guided by Ervad Aspandiar Dadachanji, Panthaky, Vatcha Gandhi Agiary, Mrs. Shernaz D.Mehta, Director, Zoroastrian Co-operative Bank Ltd. and other Trustees.

 

The Society has arrangements with a few Agiaries for the Performance Of The First Year Necessary Death Ceremonies in different areas in Mumbai and Pune. The Society has received a heartening response from many Zoroastrians and who have since become its members.

 

The Society  offers two Options:

Option 1 is the economical scheme priced at Rs. 30,000/- and covers the essential after death ceremonies for one year.

 

Option 2 covers the essential after death ceremonies for one year including Muktad and is presently priced at Rs.55,000/-.

 

Zoroastrian individuals desiring to become members of this Scheme or for further details can contact :

Mr. Ariez Kharas. Administrator. Tel.: LL 23870283. Cell 9769761284.

 

Ervad Aspandiar Dadachanji, Panthaky, Vatcha Gandhi Agiary, Huges Road,

Tel. 022 23803826 or 919820493812.

Ervad Kersi Bhadha,Panthaky, M.J.Wadia Agiary, Lalbaug. Tel. 24702207.

Ervad Viraf Pavri, Panthaky, B. C. Batliwalla Agiary, Tardeo Road. Tel. 23530142

 

Ervad Hormuz A.Dadachanji,Mithaiwala Agiary,Jehangir Daji Street, Grant Road (West), Tel.9820493812.

Ervad Pervez M. Bajan,Mewawala Agiary,Byculla.LL: 23716799 or Cell: 9820379781.

Zoroastrians who desire to get their first year after death ceremonies performed should first become members of the Society by paying a nominal sum of Rs.51/- and thereafter can opt for either of the schemes mentioned above.

 

The Society is registered as per the Society’s Registration Act and also under the Bombay Public Trust Act and is being looked after by its Board of Trustees. Community members may take advantage of this Scheme depending on their needs.

Click Here for Options

Click Here for Application Form 

Urban Legend: Parsi pangs of change – when the sun delivers the soul


It’s a ceremony that few get to see men and women dressed in long white robes singing the song of silence in a temple.
The Parsi Tower of Silence  near Hebbal Flyover where the community conducts the last rites of its dead

 The Parsi Tower of Silence near Hebbal Flyover where the community conducts the last rites of its dead

Few outside the Parsi community in the city would have noticed it. But just as a 950-year-old Tower of Silence looms over Mumbai’s busy Kemp’s Corner, a Parsi Bawdi towers over a sprawling 14 acre orchard just off Hebbal flyover.  The ‘Towers of Silence ’ is where the community conducts the last rites of its dead. The vultures, the carrion that feed off the dead – the Parsi ritual of excarnation – no longer circle above the sacred spot where the Parsis laid out their dead. It’s the fire from the sun and the heat of the earth that reclaim the dead.

It’s a ceremony that few get to see men and women dressed in long white robes singing the song of silence in a temple. Around their waist is a silken thread and in the white sanctorum is a flame that burns 365 days of the year.

Allowed into this holy place are members of a small community of 800 or so in the city. Though few in number, the 280 Parsi families in Bengaluru preserve the world’s oldest religion, the religion of fire, Zoroastrianism.

Parsis have always been regarded with interest in the country owing to their rituals, that remain a mystery to most who can almost never hope to see them.
Closely guarded is the most unique ritual of all, the last rites for their dead performed at the Parsi Tower of Silence or “Dakhmeh.”

Here lifeless bodies are surrendered to nature and vultures in particular by the community that does not believe in either burial or cremation, seeing them as means of polluting the environment.

In Bengaluru, the tower is located in a massive 14 acre campus filled with mango, coconut and other trees overlooking the Hebbal flyover. Despite its massive size it remains inconspicuous and is rarely noticed by the speeding vehicles heading to the Bengaluru airport.

While its exact design is a mystery, the tower is believed to be a huge circular well-like structure with a flat roof. Its concentric circles, open to the sun and wind, are where the dead are left to decompose gradually as nature has its way.

With vultures no longer descending on the Tower of Silence to feed on the dead, as there are not many left in the city now, the community is forced to depend on the sun alone to decompose bodies and allow the dead to attain salvation.

“By custom the dead bodies must be  exposed to the sun and vultures, which are allowed to scavenge. But this has changed over the years as there are hardly any vultures around anymore and they don’t come to the Tower of Silence,” said Mr Shereyar D Vakil,secretary of The Bangalore Parsi Zoroastrian Anjuman.

The dwindling number of vultures, be it on the Malabar hill in Mumbai or near the Hebbal flyover in Bengaluru where the tower is located, ,may have robbed the community of a big part of its ritual for the dead, but it has innovated to fill the vacuum.

“As the community in Mumbai is much larger and sees more deaths , its Tower of Silence uses solar panels to hasten the decomposition process in the absence of vultures. However,  we are a small group in Bengaluru and as there are not as many deaths here, the Tower of Silence is hardly used, the last time being five months ago. So we don’t  need to install solar panels. The bodies are just exposed to the sun,” said Dastur (priest) Fardoon. With the vultures gone, its the rays of the sun that help the dead find redemption, he explains.

“When we die, we give our body to nature as charity. We  do not believe in burial as it pollutes the earth,” said Mr Vakil.

The departed souls are later remembered in a ceremony called Muktad conducted by a priest. A group of fire worshippers assemble at the Parsi Fire Temple, oblivious to the traffic on Queens Road, to  conduct the 10-day ceremony. The priest takes the names of those who have passed away and those assembled observe silence and pray.

Despite its roots in Iran, the community has Indianised in many ways since migrating to Sanjan in Gujarat. But it has never forgotten what gives it its unique identity: its culture, which has much to offer and also its distinctive funeral rituals involving homage to the sun and vultures that have intrigued the world for hundreds of years.

http://www.deccanchronicle.com/lifestyle/viral-and-trending/140816/urban-legend-parsi-pangs-of-change-when-the-sun-delivers-the-soul.html

Parsis turn to cremations as vultures disappear from skies


Mumbai:  Kaikobad Rustomfram always thought that when he died vultures would feast on his body, as is Zoroastrian tradition. But then the scavenging birds disappeared from India’s skies.

The 90-year-old was cremated last month instead of receiving a sky burial, one of a growing number of Parsis opting to use a new prayer hall in Mumbai that is changing the ancient community’s funeral customs.

Rustomfram’s wife, Khorshed, who died in January aged 82, also chose cremation at the ten-month-old facility, which conservative Zoroastrians oppose, in the centre of Mumbai.

“They wanted to be cremated ever since they learnt that the traditional way of disposing of the dead wasn’t working because there were no vultures,” their daughter, Hutokshi Rustomfram, told AFP.

Zoroastrians believe in the god Ahura Mazda and follow the teachings of the ancient Prophet Zoroaster. They worship in ‘fire temples’, believing fire to be a symbol of god’s purity.

Known as Parsis, Zoroastrians first arrived in India more than 1,000 years ago after fleeing persecution in Persia.

They became one of India’s wealthiest communities, boasting a number of famed industrialists including the Tata family synonymous with the financial rise of Mumbai.

For centuries the community, which is dwindling at such a rapid rate that its future existence is now under threat, have laid their dead out at the city’s Towers of Silence.

Ravenous vultures would devour the flesh of the body within an hour, leaving the bones to dry in the sun before being placed in a well, an efficient disposal system believed to purify the deceased.

But India’s vulture population began to drastically decline in the early 1990s and was virtually wiped out by the mid-nineties owing to Diclofenac, an anti-inflammatory drug used to treat cattle.

Click Here for more

Prayers for the dear departed


Many times, in remote places, Mobeds are not available for prayers for the dear departed. In such cases, the family members should not be deprived of having obsequies performed for the deceased. Prayer Hall, Worli, has come out with audio files, which have the prayers for all the ceremonies, with a 10 second gap, for putting in the name of the deceased, wherever required.

Click on each of the links for the full prayers.

 

Click Here for MP3

Geh Sarnu

Click Here for MP3

Sarosh-nu-patru

Click Here for MP3

Afternoon Uthamna

Click Here for MP3

Mid-Night (Pachhli Raat-nu) Uthamna

Click Here for MP3

Cherum (Charam / Chahram) nu Jashan

 

Courtesy: Dinshaw Tamboly

 

 

 

Khandias : The Keepers of Doongerwadi


Khandias: The Keepers of Doongerwadi

Khandias are the people who tend to the Parsi community’s deceased. Open listens to their stories

Khandias in their quarters in Doongerwadi, Mumbai (Photo: RITESH UTTAMCHANDANI)

Khandias in their quarters in Doongerwadi, Mumbai (Photo: RITESH UTTAMCHANDANI)

Among Parsis, Khandias are a group of people spoken about only in hushed tones. It is their job to bathe and carry the deceased of the community to the Towers of Silence for vultures, and then tend to the mortal remains, pushing them ritually into a deep pit at the centre of the circular ‘tower’ (for retrieval and burial elsewhere later). Zoroastrian corpse bearers have been at work for millennia. But in Mumbai, home to most of India’s Parsis, no vultures have been sighted for years around the city’s Towers in Doongerwadi near Malabar Hill. This exposes the corpses to the ravages of nature that make the job increasingly nerve wracking. It is rumoured that what Khandias do can be so gruesome that it cannot be undertaken without the aid of alcohol as a calming agent.

Outdated as it sounds, dokhmenashini, the 3,000-year-old tradition of disposing of the dead by exposing them to scavenger birds, remains an important tenet of the Zoroastrian faith— for it is this that’s said to assure safe passage to the after-life. In the process, however, Khandias have become the ‘untouchables’ of an otherwise casteless community. Many of them live in Doongerwadi, where the ancient tradition is practised, in close-knit quarters of their own. For centuries, they have lived under a cloak of secrecy and in near isolation of the outside world, carrying out an ancient custom hidden away in a patch of woods in the city.

On a recent weekday, I find myself sitting beside a Khandia. He’s far from a man of frazzled nerves that I had imagined. He is old and wears a pair of large dark soda glasses. I also begin to realise that he is half-deaf.
“You can’t become a Khandia,” Kersi Kohla tells me, “you are not Parsi.”

“No sir, I’m asking why you became a Khandia.”

“Why didn’t you say that?” he responds, “Well, I had a love marriage. And then I had a court marriage.”

The towers of silence are located in a verdant sprawl of 54 acres at the eastern edge of Malabar Hill. When the first dakhma, a well-like structure where bodies are laid out for vultures to consume, was built here in 1670, this area was still nowhere close to the city, and it is said tigers and hyenas were frequently spotted. More wells were built over the years, and the land itself was purchased and called Doongerwadi, a Gujarati word for ‘orchard on the hill’. The name ‘Towers of Silence’ was coined later by a 19th century British translator.

Click Here for the full story

Towers of Silence (official trailer)


or
Published on Oct 19, 2014

‘The Towers of Silence’ explores the fundamental question faced by every small community, namely how to preserve one’s traditions in a rapidly changing and modernizing world. The film focuses on the story of the ten-year-old Dinshah Magol and the decision he has to take between following his fate in becoming the priest of his Zoroastrian community, thus preserving them from extinction, or pursuing his dream of one day becoming an engineer. The expectations of the whole community rest on his small shoulders as he contemplates this decision while waiting to grow tall enough to perform the key rituals to potentially become the world’s youngest Zoroastrian priest in living memory.Produced by Schadenfreude Films

Producer/Co -Director: Magnus Briem
Director : Fani Behraki
Camera: Pavlos Roufos, Eleni Zervopoulou
Editing: Pavlos Roufos
Sound Engineer: Fondas Kontopoulos

Read more about this religion from here:
A GUIDE TO THE ZOROASTRIAN RELIGION, Scholar’s Press, 1982. A Nineteenth Century Catechism by Erachji S. Meherjirana, with translation and commentary by a modern Dastur (High Priest):
http://bit.ly/1hiI1Lh
http://bit.ly/1garTeX

Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices:
http://amzn.to/1giI2O9
http://bit.ly/1hEEQBn

Frequently asked questions on Zoroastrianism and the Avesta:
http://www.avesta.org/zfaq….

” Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees” by J.J. Modi’s
http://www.avesta.org/ritual/rcc1937.pdf

Courtesy : Tehemton B Adenwalla
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